© Rubén Rodríguez Abril
Universidad de Sevilla (España)
In the present paper, its author explores the different application possibilities of blockchain technology within the scope of legal agreements performed by electronic means, particularly in areas so far reserved to the intervention of public officials, such as notaries. This technology, combined with biometric identification and digital certificates, has shaped a new way of notarization of documents, which is different indeed from the traditional one but equal in its legal binding. The author of this paper proposes to create an electronic registry of private documents using blockchain technology. This new registry would be state-owned and its tasks would be to identify the parties of a registered document, notarize their signatures, issue timestamps, set the law applicable to its content, and finally confer the status of enforceable titles to those documents containing pecuniary claims, in conformity with article 517 of the Spanish Civil Procedure Law or the European Regulation (CE) nº 805/2004.
© César Gilo Gómez
Universidad de Salamanca (España)
In today's society, information and communication technologies are a fundamental tool supporting all citizens. Those technologies come to be essential for people´s communication. However, the continuous technological innovation in which today's daily life is mired has not been conveyed to the judiciary in the same degree as the latter tends to usually be more conservative and reluctant to change.
To reverse this trend, the State has produced laws and regulations in recent years in order to try and implement the technological development necessary to shape the traditional facilities and tools of the judiciary in accordance with 21st Century´s Society.
In this technological update, since its first drafting, Law 22/2003, of the ninth of July, on Bankruptcy, has incorporated remarkable changes whose common denominator is the use of new technologies.
These and other issues related to the use of technology as far as the current regulation of bankrupcy provides for are the subject matter of what is exposed here.
© Fredrick Vega-Lozada
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico (EE.UU.)
In the United States of America the legislation to address gender violence in its non-consensual pornography modality, is a state criminal legislation. Sometimes these legislation incorporates individual civil remedies, and collides with freedom of expression, one of the fundamental constitutional rights of the American society. These legal disputes between the regulation of the content of an expression and the behaviours typified pertinent to non-consensual pornography allows the United States Courts to declare unconstitutional the legislation continuing the gender violence in the modality of non-consensual pornography.
© Luca Giacomelli
University of Florence (Italy)
We live in a surveillance society. Bodies become data. Information is plumbed from the body but treated as separate from it, facilitating the creation of a separate virtual ‘body-as-information’. Although social contexts are abstracted away, discriminations are solidified and replicated. Are we really sure that this virtual space is neutral? Tied closely to the surveillance and social control is the classification of sex and gender. Far from being a unifying category, surveillance becomes one of those mechanisms generating exclusion, discrimination and gendered patterns that are collected and circulated in the virtual space. Information technologies haven’t freed from the oppressive gendered discourses that accompany biological embodiment.
The law is unable to go beyond ‘the dilemma of difference’ and surveillance is no exception. Surveillance is innately conservative epistemology and puts normative pressure on non-normative bodies and practices. We can challenge the supposed neutrality of information technologies and surveillance techniques: (i) Virtual bodies discrimination (recognize that big data includes biases in who the data represents); (ii) Context/use discrimination (social contexts are already marked by sexist relations, then surveillance technologies tend to amplify those tensions); (iii) Discrimination by abstraction (surveillance operates upon masculine and paternalistic logic).
© Elisa Gutiérrez García
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
The appearance of the cinematographic work in the legal scene as an object of copyright protection was a complicated task that was both attempted to harmonize internationally and move to national legislations, along with the other existing creative realities. However, this new kind of work presented some characteristics in its creation and exploitation that made it more complex than the rest of existing works until then and that were dealt with in a different way by countries.
This paper seeks to give the reader an overview of the different regulatory responses that the main legal systems have articulated in the international scene when dealing with the ownership of exploitation rights over cinematographic works, with special attention to the Spanish case.
©Monserrat Olivos Fuentes
Universidad de Guanajuato (México)
The new vision of the Mexican State, recently accepted, has focused on the fight against corruption, in order to reverse the dramatically high social, political and economic costs derived from it. The struggle against the problem requires the analysis of the achievements and the alternative ways that have been implemented, in order to unveil the strengths and weaknesses of the mechanisms proposed to abate such issue.
Among the efforts made there is the implementation of strategies that allow the State to be transparent, based upon three patterns that in just over fifteen years have been implemented, but that do not yield the expected results or meet the expectations. We refer to the National System of Transparency, the National Anticorruption System and the Alliance for Open Governments.
In this context, this paper goes through the impact of these models in the municipalities of the country, considering that they are one of the links that present the biggest delay in terms of transparency, due to the variety of problems that characterize them, such as inequity; the lack of mechanisms for proper document´s management, the lack of qualified and trained personnel; regulatory gaps or the scarcity of resources.